Produced water is formed in underground formations and brought up to the
surface along with crude oil during production. It is by far the largest volume byproduct
or waste stream. The most popular preference to deal with produced
water is to re-inject it back into the formation. Produced water re-injection (PWRI)
needs a treatment before injection to prevent formation blockage. Due to the
increase of produced water during oil production in the west of Kuwait, an effluent
treatment and water injection plants were established and commissioned in 2004
so that produced water could be used for re-injection purposes. It is estimated that
oil wells in the west of Kuwait produce 15 to 40 % of produced water. The main
aim of this treatment train is to reduce not only the oil-in-water amount to less than
10 ppm, but also total suspended solids to 5 ppm which is the maximum allowable
concentration for re-injection and disposal. Furthermore, with respect to the upper
limit for injection, the maximum number of particles between 5 and 8 microns is
200 in 0.1 ml. In practice the number is found to exceed this limit by 10 times...
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.