Timeliness in delivering packets for delay-sensitive applications is an important QoS (Quality of Service) measure in many systems, notably those that need to provide real-time performance. In such systems, if delay-sensitive traffic is delivered to the destination beyond the deadline, then the packets will be rendered useless and dropped after received at the destination. Bandwidth that is already scarce and shared between network nodes is wasted in relaying these expired packets. This thesis proposes that a deterministic per-hop delay can be achieved by using a dynamic queue threshold concept to bound delay of each node. A deterministic per-hop delay is a key component in guaranteeing a deterministic end-to-end delay. The research aims to develop a generic approach that can constrain network delay of delay-sensitive traffic in a dynamic network. Two adaptive queue management schemes, namely, DTH (Dynamic THreshold) and ADTH (Adaptive DTH) are proposed to realize the claim. Both DTH and ADTH use the dynamic threshold concept to constrain queuing delay so that bounded average queuing delay can be achieved for the former and bounded maximum nodal delay can be achieved for the latter. DTH is an analytical approach, which uses queuing theory with superposition of N MMBP-2 (Markov Modulated Bernoulli Process) arrival processes to obtain a mapping relationship between average queuing delay and an appropriate queuing threshold, for queue management. While ADTH is an measurement-based algorithmic approach that can respond to the time-varying link quality and network dynamics in wireless ad hoc networks to constrain network delay. It manages a queue based on system performance measurements and feedback of error measured against a target delay requirement. Numerical analysis and Matlab simulation have been carried out for DTH for the purposes of validation and performance analysis. While ADTH has been evaluated in NS-2 simulation and implemented in a multi-hop wireless ad hoc network testbed for performance analysis. Results show that DTH and ADTH can constrain network delay based on the specified delay requirements, with higher packet loss as a trade-off.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.