Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title: ||Understanding the coach-athlete relationship from a cross-cultural perspective|
|Authors: ||Yang, Sophie Xin|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||© Sophie Xin Yang|
|Abstract: ||This thesis is comprised of four studies. The first study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (11-item, athlete version CART-Q) employing a total of 1,363 athletes from Belgium (n =200), Britain (n =382), China (n =200), Greece (n =115), Spain (n =120), Sweden (n =169),
and the United States of America (n =177). Multi-group mean and covariance structure (MACS) analyses supported the factorial validity of the CART-Q in a three-first order factor model across the seven countries. An examination of the latent
mean differences of the CART-Q revealed that there are some variations in terms of the intensity athletes perceive in the quality of the relationship with their coach across the different countries. Overall, these results supply additional evidence of the psychometric properties of the CART-Q and highlight that it is a sound instrument that can be applied cross-culturally. The second study attempted to identify the cultural nuances that exist in Chinese coach-athlete relationships from an derived-emic perspective. Eight-hundred Chinese
coaches and athletes completed the long and short versions of the CART-Qs. Results supported the reliability across the CART-Q versions examined, while confirmatory
factor analyses only supported the factorial validity of the three-first order factor
model of the 11-item CART-Q. The findings indicated that the corresponding aspect
of complementarity may not best capture the Chinese coach-athlete behavioural
interactions. Thus, it suggested that future research should consider conceptualising
and measuring the coach-athlete reciprocal interactions in terms of coaches dominant
behaviours and athletes submissive behaviours within Chinese sports context.
The third study examined the nomological validity of the 11-item CART-Qs with
350 Chinese coach-athlete dyads. Big-Five personality traits and relationship
satisfaction were employed as the criterion variables of coach-athlete relationships.
Results revealed: (a) actor effects of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness,
extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches and athletes perceptions of
relationship quality and (b) partner effects of only athletes personality, namely,
conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches perceptions of
relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member s
personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, because no
interaction effects of the coach s and the athlete s personality traits on relationship quality were found. In addition, the findings also supported both actor and partner
effects of the coach s and the athlete s perceptions of relationship quality on their
satisfaction with training.
Based upon the relevant theory and findings generated from the previous three
studies, the fourth and final study aimed to fill the gap in the relevant literatures by
expanding the construct of complementarity to include coach-athlete reciprocal
behaviours, namely the coach s dominant and the athlete s submissive behaviours.
Study 4 included 4 phases reflecting the process undertaken to develop and validate
the Dominant-Submissive Behaviours Scales. Phase 1 generated a pool of items based
on the relevant literatures and feedback from the coaches and athletes; these items
were then assessed by three panel groups including academic experts, coaches and
athletes. In phase 2 and phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the
construct validity, nomological validity, and internal reliability of the developed scales.
As a result, the 10-item coach s dominant behaviour scale and the 10-item athlete s
submissive behaviour scale were derived. Phase 4 employed athletes from five
different countries to assess the cross-cultural validity of the submissive scale, and
results supported the full structural invariance of the athlete s submissive behaviour
scale across the five countries. Overall, results confirmed the dominant-submissive
scale is a valid measure for assessing another dimension of complementarity in
Collectively, this thesis has expanded the current knowledge of coach-athlete
relationships to a broader social-cultural context by recruiting coaches and athletes
from eight different countries across two continents. It is therefore plausible to
conclude that the conceptualisation of the 3+1Cs model and the CART-Q seem to be
universal across diverse cultures at a generic level. However, future research needs to
continue discovering the universals as well as the variations of human behaviours in
the content and the quality of coach-athlete relationships.
Key Words: Chinese, dominant, submissive, coach-athlete, relationships,
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)|
Files associated with this item:
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.