HOCKNELL, A., JONES, R. and ROTHBERG, S., 1996. Experimental analysis of impacts with large elastic deformations. Part 1: linear motion. Measurement Science and Technology 9 (7), pp. 1247 - 1254.
A measurement system is presented which uses a small number of sensors to capture relevant information by a limited number of measurements during a high-speed impact between two lightweight bodies. Two laser Doppler vibrometers and a piezoelectric accelerometer are arranged to capture data from which the variation of deformations, velocities and forces over time during an impact can be determined. The golf club - ball impact is chosen as an example. Large elastic deformations are measured on the golf ball during the impact and these can be related to the variation of the impact force over time. This information leads to greater understanding of the relationship between two impacting bodies and can be used in the validation of analysis by techniques such as finite element modelling.