Towards having a one size fits all solution to cocaine detection at borders; this thesis proposes a systematic cocaine detection methodology that can use raw data output from a fibre optic sensor to produce a set of unique features whose decisions can be combined to lead to reliable output. This multidisciplinary research makes use of real data sourced from cocaine analyte detecting fibre optic sensor developed by one of the collaborators - City University, London.
This research advocates a two-step approach: For the first step, the raw sensor data are collected and stored. Level one fusion i.e. analyses, pre-processing and feature extraction is performed at this stage. In step two, using experimentally pre-determined thresholds, each feature decides on detection of cocaine or otherwise with a corresponding posterior probability. High level sensor fusion is then performed on this output locally to combine these decisions and their probabilities at time intervals. Output from every time interval is stored in the database and used as prior data for the next time interval. The final output is a decision on detection of cocaine.
The key contributions of this thesis includes investigating the use of data fusion techniques as a solution for overcoming challenges in the real time detection of cocaine using fibre optic sensor technology together with an innovative user interface design. A generalizable sensor fusion architecture is suggested and implemented using the Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer techniques. The results from implemented experiments show great promise with this architecture especially in overcoming sensor limitations. A 5-fold cross validation system using a 12 13 - 1 Neural Network was used in validating the feature selection process. This validation step yielded 89.5% and 10.5% true positive and false alarm rates with 0.8 correlation coefficient. Using the Bayesian Technique, it is possible to achieve 100% detection whilst the Dempster Shafer technique achieves a 95% detection using the same features as inputs to the DF system.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.